Edit: 12.8.2014 EVi

RULES OF THUMB 



DESCENT PLANNING FOR 3 DEGREE GLIDE SLOPE



Rate of descent  = Airspeed x 5         Example :: 100 Kts x 5 = 500 ft/min


Distance for descent is height change x 3   Example: descend from 7,000ft to 1,000ft (6,000ft) 6 x 3 = 18nm. Start descent 18nm



TAKE OFF  DISTANCE INCREASE



10% each 1,000ft altitude and 10 degrees above ISA or 10% up slope or dry grass

20% if weight up 10%

30% wet grass



LANDING DISTANCE INCREASE



5% each 1,000ft altitude or 10 degrees above ISA

10% if weight up 10% or 10% down slope or dry grass

30% wet grass



DENSITY ALTITUDE   1 Cº over ISA = 120FT (plus height over ground)



Example:  Eastern 180FT.  OAT 35º = 2,400FT + height 180FT = 2,580FT Density Altitude



TRUE AIRSPEED is indicated airspeed + 2% each 1,000FT



Example 100 Kts indicated at 5,000FT is 100 + 2% x 5 = 110 Kts TAS. (Caution over Vne)



ALTIMETER ERROR   4FT x  temp deviation from ISA X height (1000)



Example  OAT is 20 deg at 5,000FT. But ISA is 5 (difference 15 deg)  4 x 15 x 5 = 300FT.

Altimeter under-reads 300FT. True altitude 5,300FT. Caution- below ISA, altimeter over-reads



WIND COMPONENTS




CROSS

HEAD

15 º

25%

95%

30 º

50%

90%

45 º

70%

70%

60 º

90%

50%

75 º

95%

25%


Example 10Kt from 30º is 5Kt cross/w and 9Kt headwind



NAVIGATION  - OFF TRACK            1 in 60 rule :  1 degree off track is 1nm in 60



Distance off track / (divided by) distance gone x 60 = track error in degrees


Distance off track / (divided by) distance to go x 60 = closing angle. (Add together)



BEST SPEED (Lift/Drag) for max Range / Rate of Climb / Glide is stall speed clean  x 1.4



Example: stall speed 50 Kts x 1.4 = 70 Kts. Best speed if low on fuel or gliding engine out.



COORDINATES  eg 12.45.30 N  Degrees / minutes / seconds



1  Degree  =  60 nm or 110 Km      Example    13.45.30 is 60 miles north


1 Minute   =   1 nm about 2 Km     Example   12.46.30 is 1 mile north


1 Second  = 30 metres                 Example    12.45.40 is 300m north